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02 Julodis by Maurizio Gigli.

The genus Julodis Eschscholtz
In Julodis it’s possible to identified two main groups. The first one is typical of the southern part of Africa (in green). The other group (in red) lives in Northern Africa (around Sahara, reaching The Red Sea and Aldabra Is.), in the Mediterranean Subregion, Middle Orient, in some steppic lands of Central Asia, reaching Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India. Recently discovered also in China. In the distribution of this last group we can locate two main centres of diversification: one in NW Africa (Maghreb: Maroc, Algeria and Tunisia) an another in Middle Orient. Very few species live in Southern Europe and in some Mediterranean isles . This scarce presence in Europe is probably caused by last glacial periods. Several species of Palearctic Julodis show a very high variability, with many geografical forms. West Mediterranean Julodis are particularly represented by two extremely variable species: Julodis onopordi and Julodis aequinoctialis, with other related species. In the East Mediterranean region and Middle Orient, there is a big number of species. Many of them were considered subspecies or simply varieties of Julodis onopordi, but they are considered good species, now (Julodis andreae, etc.). Other big complexes are those of Julodis euphratica and Julodis variolaris. We have an incredible number of synonims and different classifications, especially for two extremely variable species, and perhaps there is none, at this moment, able to write a complete list of Palearctic species. There are surely other unknown or undescribed species and subspecies. I’ll try to write a list of species, but someone (especially some Obenberger’s species) surely need to be revised.

Purple = Palearctic group. Green = Ethiopic group

Collection: Maurizio Gigli: http://utenti.romascuola.net/bups/jewel.htm