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Taxonomy

Introduction: This article is still in process.

Taxonomy:

The technique of identifying, describing, naming and classifying an organism. Note that identifying and classifying are two different disciplines, but for the purpose of this article, I have deliberately combined the two.

Taxonomy or systematic entomology (in this case) is primary based on external structure, morphology based, but analyses through molecular biology, using DNA sequences, gives us the ability to identify any specimens more accurately, mainly when it comes to differentiate species and subspecies.

Each species has a unique latinized binomial name [Genus followed by Species], this method was first introduced by Carl Linnaeus in the 1700s, and has been accepted and recognised since then. Due to the extreme number of described specimens a third latinized name can be included to the taxon; this will nominate a subspecies.

Example: Odontolabis stevensi limbata, Kriesche 1922.


GroupsClassificationCharacteristics & Definition
SUPERREGNUM:EUKARYOTA = EUKARIAAn organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained with a distinct nucleus, EUKARIOTA includes animals, plants and fungi.
REGNUM:ANIMALIA = METAZOAMulticellular and heterotrophic organism, METAZOA includes arthropods, jellyfish, mammals, sponges and humans.
SUBREGNUM:EUMETAZOAA gastrulation occurs during the early embryonic development.
SUPERPHYLUM:ECDYSOZOAA cuticula or a three-layered structure provides a protection through their exoskeleton.
PHYLUM:ARTHROPODA

UNIRAMIA suggested by Sidnie Manton includes three subphyla; HEXAPODA, MYRIAPODA, and ONYCHOPHORA.

Exoskeleton made of chitin, segmented body and jointed limbs.

Over a million species have been described which account for over 80% of all known living species.

SUBPHYLUM:HEXAPODA

A consolidated thorax with 3 pairs of legs; [symplesiomorphic character].

HEXAPODA includes COLLEMBOLA, PROTURA and DIPLURA which are wingless ARTHROPODA.


SUPERCLASS:MANDIBULATA

The main characteristic is the presence of mandibles.

MANDIBULATA includes the HEXAPODA, the MYRIAPODA and the CRUSTACEA.

CLASS:INSECTA

A chitinous exoskeleton made of two layers; the epicuticule and the procuticle.

A three parts body:

1. Head which contains one pair of antenna, the ocellus (compound eyes) and the mouthparts.

2. Thorax which contains a three pairs of jointed legs.

3. Abdomen which contains most of the respiratory, digestive, excretory and reproductive organs.

SUBCLASS:DICONDYLIAPresence of two articulations on each of their two mandibular condyles.
INFRACLASS:PTERYGOTA

Winged insects, as opposed to APTERYGOTA.

This infraclass has also been divided into two categories; The NEOPTERA [wings can flex over their abdomen] as opposed to the PALEOPTERA.

SUPERORDER:ENDOPTERYGOTAComplete metamorphosis = Holometabolism: four stages of development; egg, larva, pupa and imago. (Incomplete metamorphosis = Hemimetabolism; three stages of development; egg, nymph and imago).
ORDER:COLEOPTERA

Synonyms; ELEUTHERATA or ELYTROPTERA.

One pair of sclerotized fore wings = Elytra.

SUBORDER:POLYPHAGAThe Order COLEOPTERA contains 4 Suborders: ADEPHAGAARCHOSTEMATA, MYXOPHAGA and POLYPHAGA.
SERIES:SCARABAEIFORMIA
SECTION:LAMELLICORNIA
SUPERFAMILY:SCARABAEOIDEA
FAMILY:LUCANIDAE
SUBFAMILY:CHALCODINAE
TRIBE:ODONTOLABINI
GENUS:OdontolabisA monophyletic group that has a synapomorphic character = a true systematic base.
SUBGENUS:No SubgenusAs an example Coptolabrus is a subgenus of the genus Carabus.
SPECIES:cuvera Real entity for classification; capability of exchanging genes or interbreeding. The definition of species still remains problematic and controversial, mainly when concerning the asexual reproduction of single-celled organisms like bacteria, but for the purpose of this classification the term species relates to sexual reproduction and fertilisation.
SUBSPECIES:alticolaAn infraspecific taxon; normally a geographic subdivision of a species which could be classified as a race.
Variation:

The occurence (disparity, deviation) of an organism in more than one distinct colour or form.

See the article on Variation. [In preparation]

Hybrids:[In preparation]
Mutation:The changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generation. [In preparation]
Mimetism:[In preparation]
Gender:Male or Female. See the articles on Polymorphism [In preparation] , and on Gynandromorphism.
Name / Date:Kriesche, 1922

Name of the original author who first described the specimen, but not necessarily classified it.

Date at which the specimen was described.

Label:See the article on Orismology, for the reference of a specimen. 

The Coleopterists Bulletin 60(sp5):144-204. 2006
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1649/0010-065X(2006)60[144:AROTFN]2.0.CO;2

A Review of the Family-group Names for the Superfamily Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera) with Corrections to Nomenclature and a Current Classification

Andrew B. T. Smith
Canadian Museum of Nature, P.O. Box 3443, Station D, Ottawa, ON K1P 6P4, CANADA asmith@mus-nature.ca
Abstract
For the first time, all family-group names in the superfamily Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera) are evaluated using the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to determine their availability and validity. A total of 383 family-group names were found to be available, and all are reviewed to scrutinize the correct spelling, author, date, nomenclatural availability and validity, and current classification status. Numerous corrections are given to various errors that are commonly perpetuated in the literature. A reversal of precedence is used to preserve the prevailing usage of the following family-group names: Eupariini Schmidt, 1910 (over Ataeniini Harold, 1868); Pachydemini Burmeister, 1855 (over Elaphocerini Blanchard, 1851); Heterosternina Bates, 1888 (over Macropnina Horn, 1866); and Anomalina Streubel, 1839 (over Euchlorina Hope, 1839).